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He composed over works, many acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, concertante, chamber, operatic, and choral music. This was the capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, an ecclesiastic principality in what is now Austria, then part of the Holy Roman Empire. He was the youngest of seven children, five of whom died in infancy. In , he was appointed as fourth violinist in the musical establishment of Count Leopold Anton von Firmian, the ruling Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg.

Four years later, he married Anna Maria in Salzburg. When Nannerl was seven, she began keyboard lessons with her father while her three-year-old brother looked on. He often spent much time at the clavier, picking out thirds, which he was ever striking, and his pleasure showed that it sounded good. In the fourth year of his age his father, for a game as it were, began to teach him a few minuets and pieces at the clavier. He could play it faultlessly and with the greatest delicacy, and keeping exactly in time.

At the age of five, he was already composing little pieces, which he played to his father who wrote them down. Solomon notes that, while Leopold was a devoted teacher to his children, there is evidence that Mozart was keen to progress beyond what he was taught. His first ink-spattered composition and his precocious efforts with the violin were of his own initiative and came as a surprise to his father. Along with music, he taught his children languages and academic subjects. Mozart wrote his first symphony when he was eight years old. It is probable that his father transcribed most of it for him.

Early life and works

Figure 3. The Mozart family on tour: Leopold, Wolfgang, and Nannerl. Watercolor by Carmontelle, ca. During this trip, Mozart met a number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other composers. The family again went to Vienna in late and remained there until December These trips were often difficult and travel conditions were primitive.

This travel lasted from December to March In Milan, Mozart wrote the opera Mitridate, re di Ponto , which was performed with success. This led to further opera commissions.

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Leopold hoped these visits would result in a professional appointment for his son in Italy, but these hopes were never realized. Toward the end of the final Italian journey, Mozart wrote the first of his works to be still widely performed today, the solo motet Exsultate, jubilate , K. After finally returning with his father from Italy on 13 March , Mozart was employed as a court musician by the ruler of Salzburg, Prince-Archbishop Hieronymus Colloredo.

Between April and December , Mozart developed an enthusiasm for violin concertos, producing a series of five the only ones he ever wrote , which steadily increased in their musical sophistication. The last three—K. In he turned his efforts to piano concertos, culminating in the E-flat concerto K. Despite these artistic successes, Mozart grew increasingly discontented with Salzburg and redoubled his efforts to find a position elsewhere.

The situation worsened in when the court theater was closed, especially since the other theater in Salzburg was largely reserved for visiting troupes.

Two long expeditions in search of work interrupted this long Salzburg stay: Mozart and his father visited Vienna from 14 July to 26 September , and Munich from 6 December to March Mozart became acquainted with members of the famous orchestra in Mannheim, the best in Europe at the time.

He also fell in love with Aloysia Weber, one of four daughters of a musical family. One of his letters from Paris hints at a possible post as an organist at Versailles, but Mozart was not interested in such an appointment.

In Mozart's words

He fell into debt and took to pawning valuables. There had been delays in calling a doctor—probably, according to Halliwell, because of a lack of funds. While Mozart was in Paris his father was pursuing opportunities of employment for him in Salzburg. With the support of the local nobility, Mozart was offered a post as court organist and concertmaster. By that time relations between Grimm and Mozart had cooled, and Mozart moved out.

After leaving Paris in September for Strasbourg, he lingered in Mannheim and Munich, still hoping to obtain an appointment outside Salzburg. In Munich he again encountered Aloysia, now a very successful singer, but she was no longer interested in him. Mozart finally returned to Salzburg on 15 January and took up his new appointment, but his discontent with Salzburg remained undiminished. Among the better known works which Mozart wrote on the Paris journey are the A minor piano sonata, K. Figure 4.


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The Mozart family c. The following March, Mozart was summoned to Vienna, where his employer, Archbishop Colloredo, was attending the celebrations for the accession of Joseph II to the Austrian throne. The resulting quarrel came to a head in May: Mozart attempted to resign and was refused. Mozart decided to settle in Vienna as a freelance performer and composer. The quarrel with the archbishop went harder for Mozart because his father sided against him.

The principal result of his stay in Milan was, that the young maestro got the scrittura of an opera for the ensuing season. As the libretto was to be sent to them, they could first make a journey through Italy with easy minds. The opera was "Mitridate, Re di Ponto. I am heartily glad that you have had so much amusement.

Perhaps you may think that I have not been as merry as you; but, indeed, I cannot sum up all we have done. I think we have been at least six or seven times at the opera and the feste di ballo, which, as in Vienna, begin after the opera, but with this difference, that at Vienna the dancing is more orderly. We also saw the facchinata and chiccherata.


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The first is a masquerade, an amusing sight, because the men go as facchini, or porters; there was also a barca filled with people, and a great number on foot besides; and five or six sets of trumpets and kettledrums, besides several bands of violins and other instruments.

The chiccherata is also a masquerade. What the people of Milan call chicchere, we call petits maitres, or fops. They were all on horseback, which was a pretty sight. I am as happy now to hear that Herr von Aman [Footnote: The father had written in a previous letter, "Herr von Aman's accident, of which you wrote to us, not only distressed us very much, but cost Wolfgang many tears. You know how sensitive he is"] is better, as I was grieved when you mentioned that he had met with an accident.

Pray write this to me, if you know it; your doing so will oblige me very much. Kiss mamma's hands for me a thousand million times, and a thousand to yourself from "Catch him who can! Having been so long idle, I thought it would do me no harm to set to work again for a short time. On the post-days, when the German letters come, all that I eat and drink tastes better than usual.

Next to Mozart

I beg you will let me know who are to sing in the oratorio, and also its title. Let me hear how you like the Haydn minuets, and whether they are better than the first. From my heart I rejoice to hear that Herr von Aman is now quite recovered; pray say to him that he must take great care of himself and beware of any unusual exertion. Be sure you tell him this. I intend shortly to send you a minuet that Herr Pick danced on the stage, and which every one in Milan was dancing at the feste di ballo, only that you may see by it how slowly people dance.

The minuet itself is beautiful. Of course it comes from Vienna, so no doubt it is either Teller's or Starzer's.


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  8. It has a great many notes. Because it is a theatrical minuet, which is in slow time. The Milan and Italian minuets, however, have a vast number of notes, and are slow and with a quantity of bars; for instance, the first part has sixteen, the second twenty, and even twenty-four. We made the acquaintance of a singer in Parma, and also heard her to great advantage in her own house—I mean the far-famed Bastardella. She has, first, a fine voice; second, a flexible organ; third, an incredibly high compass. She sang the following notes and passages in my presence.

    I AM thankful to say that my stupid pen and I are all right, so we send a thousand kisses to you both.